Benzene line requirements

Ane of Modern Conventional Carbon Dating laboratory is based on Radioactivity measurement by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). As for LSC based Conventional Carbon Dating laboratory it is required modern liquid scintillation counter (spectrometer) like: QUANTULUS Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer or Tri-Carb Liquid Scintillation Counters both produced by PerkinElmer Inc.. Benzene as counting sample is produced using benzene line.

Some requirements to lab:
Staff required: 1-3 person.

Rooms: at least 2 rooms of about 20 square meter each (one as an chemical lab) and another for counting equipment. Both including water, electricity and ventilation system.


  • Vacuum pump (1 or 2), oil based pump with pressure about 20 mBar.
  • Ventilation oven up to 450 degree C.


  • Liquid nitrogen: up to 0,5-1,0 L per sample.
  • Lithium (metal as for synthesis) of 1,0 to 10,0 g per sample.
  • Alcali (NaOH, 1-3%).
  • Acid (HNO3, 1-3%).
  • Hydrofluoric acid, (1-2%).
  • Sulfuric Acid  about 1L per year.

Vacuum pyrolysis – heart of sample preparation

Vacuum pyrolysis allows to extend variety of sample material applicable Conventional Carbon dating. It simplify and shortened sample processing procedures. Reaction vessel (see scheme, below) is heart of carbide sample preparation in modern benzene line. It allows obtaining of lithium carbide by (1) melting of charcoal (C) and lithium alloy as it is used in conventional procedure, by (2)  contacting of CO2 with molten lithium, by (3) contacting of carbonaceous gases produced during pyrolysis  of sample material with lithium alloy, and some combination of above based on advantages operation in the one reaction vessel (4).

 Reaction Vessel
vacuum pyrolysis, Benzene line, Radio Carbon Dating Equipment, Carbon Analysis, benzene, acethylene,lithium carbide, LSC Measurements, C14 Dating, C14, Radiocarbon

Benzene line – Equipment for Radiocarbon Dating: Technology, SetUp and training.

Benzene line is equipment and technology. It serves to produce benzene sample used for C-14 counting by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) if conventional radiocarbon dating used. Benzene line offered includes set of equipment shipment, laboratory installation and staff training. Benzene line is based on vacuum pyrolysis technology and cryogenic approach for gas transport and conversion. It serves for conversion of datable carbon to: lithium carbide > acetylenebenzene. Technology includes processing, conversion, transport and purification of above mentioned substances. In addition we developed and produced modern Teflon vials for counting of benzene by LSC.

Besides on site we had placed information about application of benzene line as part of conventional radiocarbon dating laboratory, we had described its applicability for dating of archaeological pottery.