New Teflon vials


Capsule technology in Benzene Line

Capsule technology.

It was designed for direct obtaining of acetylene from very small samples of organic matter or carbonates. It allows producing benzene from very small quantities of acetylene (as low as 0.05 g) with the overall chemical yield higher than 92% for organic samples and higher than 96% for carbonates.

Organic sample scheme.

Carbonate sample scheme.


1. Vadim V Skripkin, Nikolai N Kovaliukh. Production Of Lithium Carbide From Very Small Organic And Carbonate Samples For Liquid Scintillation Radiocarbon Analysis. ZESZYTY NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI SLASKIEJ – 1996. Seria: MATEMATYK A-FIZYKA z. 79. GEOCHRONOMETRIA 13. Nr kol. 1330
2. Michael Buzinny&VadimSkripkin. Newly Designed 0.8-ML Teflon Vial for Micro-volume Radiocarbon Dating.RADIOCARBON. Vol 37, No 2 (1995) PP. 743-747

Video set:

1. Capsule technology : benzene line : mount and how it looks like
2. Capsule technology : benzene line : hydrolysis from begining
3.Capsule technology : benzene line : remove residual acetylene
4.Capsule technology : benzene line : prepare (replace) catalyst
5.Capsule technology : benzene line : start of benzene synthesis
6.Capsule technology : benzene line : place lithium and sample
7.Capsule technology : benzene line : argon welding
8.Capsule technology : benzene line : place capsule to reaction vessel : beginning of synthesis

Recent progress in development and application of new performances Teflon vials for radiocarbon LS counting.

As it was stated (Robert M Kalin and Austin Long, 1989) traditional Teflon vials may have limitation like they are time consuming and may require individual calibration in series and benzene leakage limited. Glass vials (A. G. HOGG, 1992) will cover wide range of benzene volume measured (0.3 Ml to 10 Ml), when 10 Ml vials are most applicable for precise measurement of radiocarbon and when 0.3 Ml vials are suitable to provide accurate results with adequate precision for many applications, for samples containing 120-240 mg of carbon. Our developments (Michael Buzinny and Vadim Skripkin) create of two parts 0.8 Ml Teflon vial with different holder which have quite good performances described above. Now we offer most recently developed (Skripkin, unpublished) super performance Teflon vials are long durability, simple in use with different volumes: 0.8 Ml, 1.5 Ml, 2.5 Ml, 4.0 Ml 7.0 Ml with extra Low benzene leakage.

In addition application of underground laboratory (Wolfango Plastino and Lauri Kaihola) can significantly decrease counting background.


1.Robert M Kalin and Austin Long. Radiocarbon Dating With The Quantulus In An Underground Counting Laboratory: Performance And Background Sources. RADIOCARBON, VOL 31, No. 3, 1989, PP 359-367.

2. A.G. HOGG. Performance And Design Of 03-Ml To 10-Ml Synthetic Silica Liquid Scintillation Vials For Low-Level 14C Determination . Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry 1992, edited by J.E.Noakes, F. Schonhofer and H. A. Polach. RADIOCARBON 1993, pp. 135-142.

3. Wolfango Plastino and Lauri Kaihola . Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry At Gran Sasso National Laboratory: radiocarbon measurements. LSC 2005, Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry. Edited by Stanislaw Chalupnik, Franz Schönhofer,John Noakes. pp 435–438.

4. Michael Buzinny and Vadim Skripkin. Newly Designed 0.8-ML Teflon Vial For Micro-Volume Radiocarbon Dating.RADIOCARBON. Vol 37, No 2 (1995) PP. 743-747

Benzene line application

Benzene line is used to produce benzene as counting media for C-14 counting in benzene with Liquid Scintillation (LS) spectrometer i.e. Conventional Radiocarbon Analyze. Benzene line application as a part of Conventional Radiocarbon Analyze is:

  • Radiocarbon dating i.e. dating of the past;
  • Estimation of impact of nuclear installation (NPP) on the environment;
  • Estimation of bio-based percentage in production and raw materials.
  • Estimation of bio-based percentage of Bio-based in fuel (bio-diesel and waste fuel).

Bio-based testing

Benzene line requirements

Ane of Modern Conventional Carbon Dating laboratory is based on Radioactivity measurement by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). As for LSC based Conventional Carbon Dating laboratory it is required modern liquid scintillation counter (spectrometer) like: QUANTULUS Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer or Tri-Carb Liquid Scintillation Counters both produced by PerkinElmer Inc.. Benzene as counting sample is produced using benzene line.

Some requirements to lab:
Staff required: 1-3 person.

Rooms: at least 2 rooms of about 20 square meter each (one as an chemical lab) and another for counting equipment. Both including water, electricity and ventilation system.


  • Vacuum pump (1 or 2), oil based pump with pressure about 20 mBar.
  • Ventilation oven up to 450 degree C.


  • Liquid nitrogen: up to 0,5-1,0 L per sample.
  • Lithium (metal as for synthesis) of 1,0 to 10,0 g per sample.
  • Alcali (NaOH, 1-3%).
  • Acid (HNO3, 1-3%).
  • Hydrofluoric acid, (1-2%).
  • Sulfuric Acid  about 1L per year.

Vacuum pyrolysis – heart of sample preparation

Vacuum pyrolysis allows to extend variety of sample material applicable Conventional Carbon dating. It simplify and shortened sample processing procedures. Reaction vessel (see scheme, below) is heart of carbide sample preparation in modern benzene line. It allows obtaining of lithium carbide by (1) melting of charcoal (C) and lithium alloy as it is used in conventional procedure, by (2)  contacting of CO2 with molten lithium, by (3) contacting of carbonaceous gases produced during pyrolysis  of sample material with lithium alloy, and some combination of above based on advantages operation in the one reaction vessel (4).

 Reaction Vessel
vacuum pyrolysis, Benzene line, Radio Carbon Dating Equipment, Carbon Analysis, benzene, acethylene,lithium carbide, LSC Measurements, C14 Dating, C14, Radiocarbon